THE NATURE OF MATTER

CHART OF EXPLANATIONS

1 Wave-Particle Duality of Nature
2 The Nature of Time
3 The Nature of Rest Mass
4 The Spin and Statistics Theorem
5 Neutrino Helicity
6 Weak Force Parity Violation
7 How a Neutral Particle can possess a Magnetic Dipole Problem
8 The Fractional Charge of Quarks
9 The Tripolar Color Charge of Strong Force
10 Asymptotic Freedom
11 The SU(3) Symmetry of the Strong Force
12 a The SU(2) U(1) Symmetry of the Weak Force
12 b The SU(2) Symmetry portion of Weak Force
13 The U(1) Symmetry of the Electromagnetic Force
14 E=mc2
15 The Nature of Magnetic Flux
16 The Nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
17 The Nature of the Higgs Field

 PHENOMENON EXPERIMENTAL or OBSERVATIONAL FACT PRESENT EXPLANATION PROPOSED EXPLANATION Part Chapter Section 1 Wave-Particle Duality of Nature In the Two Slit Experiment, photons sent even one at a time through one of two slits cause an interference pattern. Presently, the wave-particle duality of nature is established, but not explained. The energy component causes the wave behavior. The unit matter substructure component causes the particle behavior. III 11 2 The Nature of Time (Definition of Time) The arrow of time is obvious at the macroscopic level. At the particle level, time is widely believed to be reversible. Entropy is believed to be the source of the arrow of time at the macroscopic level. Time is widely believed to be reversible at the particle level. Time is the motion of energy. The arrow of time is due the unidirectional flow of the units of energy within the energy realm. III 12 3 The Nature of Rest Mass Particle masses not predictable from theory. Particle masses are not predictable from theory, a lack of knowledge is realized. Rest mass is internal structural energy of the particle, which displaces the background. III 3 4 The Spin and Statistics Theorem There are fermions with half integer spin and there are bosons with integer spin. Spin is an inherent property of fermions and bosons. Fermions have an odd number of units of matter in the substructure. Bosons have an even number of units of matter in the substructure. III 2 3 5 Neutrino Helicity Anti-neutrino only exhibits right hand spin. Neutrino only exhibits left hand spin. Neutrino helicity is believed to be the result of parity violation in weak force interactions, but there is no explanation of why the weak force is asymmetric. Neutrino helicity is due to the alignment of the magnetic dipoles of unit matter particles in the neutrino doublet substructure. I 3 2 6 Weak Force Parity Violation The weak force is asymmetrical. The weak force asymmetry is accepted as law, but not explained. The weak force is asymmetric with respect to parity due to the alignment of the magnetic dipoles of the composing structural units of matter. I 3 2 III 6 7 How a Neutral Particle can possess a Magnetic Dipole Neutrons and neutrinos have magnetic dipoles. The magnetic dipoles of neutral particles is accepted as more strange quantum magic. Neutral particles possess a magnetic dipole because they are composed of unit particles of matter which have magnetic dipoles. I 3 2 III 6 8 The Fractional Charge of Quarks Fractional charge mathematics exists for quarks. Fractional charge quarks exist and fractional charge is a fact of nature. Group ratios of unit charge particles explains quark fractional charge mathematics. I 3 1 III 4 9 The Tripolar Color Charge of Strong Force Experimental statistics indicate the existence of three poles of charge in the strong force. The strong force has a tripolar charge referred to as color charge. Energy bound in the quark triplet unit charge unit matter substructure manifests the three poles of charge in the strong force. III 5 III 10 10 Asymptotic Freedom Strong force is observed to increase with an increase in distance between quarks. Strong force decreases with distance between quarks, and approaches zero as distance approaches zero. Existence of doublets indicates that units of matter are permanent in nature. III 5

 PHENOMENON EXPERIMNETAL or OBSERVATIONAL FACT PRESENT EXPLANATION PROPOSED EXPLANATION Part Chapter Section 11 SU(3) Symmetry of the Strong Force SU(3) symmetry is exhibited by strong force interactions. Tripolar strong force is the source of SU(3) symmetry. SU(3) symmetry is a manifestation of the triplet substructure of up & down quarks. III 10 12a SU(2) U(1) Symmetry of the Weak Force Weak Force actually follows SU(2) U(1) symmetry. Weak Force should be SU(2) to fit the pattern. Weak force involves two substructures, a U(1) singlet and a SU(2) doublet. III 10 III 6 12b SU(2) Symmetry portion of Weak Force Must be a source for the SU(2) portion of the symmetries exhibited by the weak force interactions. Electron and neutrinos are considered the doublet that is the source of SU(2) symmetry in weak force interactions. The source for the SU(2) symmetry exhibited by the weak force interaction is the doublet substructure of the neutrino. III 10 13 U(1) Symmetry of the Electromagnetic Force Electromagnetic force exhibits U(1) symmetry. Electromagnetic force exhibits U(1) symmetry. U(1) symmetry exhibited by electromagnetic force is due the single axis of charged energy rotation. III 10 14 E=mc2 The matter of particles is routinely observed to be "created" from the kinetic energy of accelerated particles or high energy photons, and matter and anti-matter are observed to annihilate into the mass-energy of photons. Mass and energy is are interchangeable. The annihilation of a positron and an electron are a prime example. In E=mc2, rest mass and energy are interchangeable, but not matter and energy. Both units of energy and units of matter are permanent. The mass of particles in annihilation events is converted to the energy of photons, but the units of matter composing the particles are not destroyed. I 4 5 III 2 1 I 3 3 15 The Nature of Magnetic Flux Why is magnetic force exherted at a right angle to the direction of the current? Force at right angle is accepted as a law of nature, but the asymmetry due to charge is not explained. Magnetic flux is the motion of the background particles caused by the motion of electrical charge. III 7 16 The Nature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Cosmic Microwave Background radiation is a perfect thermal blackbody radiation. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is the afterglow of the Big Bang. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation is the thermal radiation of the universal Background of Matter. The background is 2.7 oK. I 4 3 III 1 2 17 The Nature of the Higgs Field The Higgs Field is mathematical product of the weak force math. The nature of the Higgs Field is not presently known. The Higgs Fields is the universal background of matter.

Title Page of the Nature of Matter