THE NATURE OF MATTER

PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED PART III

SYMMETRY
C
HAPTER 10

Section A The Most Powerful Argument in Favor of the Theory
Section B Source of the Symmetries in the Natural Forces
Section 1
U(1) Symmetry
Section 2 SU(2) Symmetry
Section 2a SU(2) Symmetry
Section 2b SU(2)U1 Symmetry
Section 3 SU(3) Symmetry

THE MOST POWERFUL ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF THE THEORY
SECTION A

The most powerful argument in favor of the Unit Matter Substructure Theory is that the theory provides a highly plausible mechanism to explain why and how each of the three particle forces are associated with each particular symmetry, and what the source of the symmetry is.

The source of the each symmetry of force is proposed to be the
unit matter substructure of the particle exhibiting the force.

The unit particle of matter substructure within each particle substructure and the associated set amount of energy bound within the substructure of the particle are proposed to be the root cause of the symmetry exhibited by interactions that occur with that particle substructure.

This explanation shows that the symmetry and associated math have a physical root cause which is deeper and more profound than the presently thought cause, which is that the force carriers cause the manifestation of the symmetry. This explanation is deeper and more profound because the symmetry of the energy transfers are caused by the root physical structure of the particles. The energy of interaction is configured by the particle's unit matter substructure, as opposed to the presently held idea that the force carriers alone are the cause of the symmetry.

It is proposed that the way energy is transferred between particles, particle interactions, is determined by the internal structure of the particles.

The ability to explain why each of the three fundamental forces are associated with a particular symmetry, and a particular conservation law, is an extremely powerful argument in favor of the unit matter substructure theory.

SOURCE OF THE SYMMETRIES IN THE NATURAL FORCES
S
ECTION B

The energy bound in the structure of a particle is configured by the unit particle of matter substructure of that particle. The unit particle of matter substructure of a particle is proposed to be the root cause of the specific symmetry exhibited by interactions with that particle.

The source of the symmetries of nature observed to be followed by the natural forces is proposed to be the unit particle of matter substructure of the particle exhibiting the force.

• Singlet substructures are proposed to cause energy to exhibit U(1) symmetry.
• Doublet substructures are proposed to cause energy to exhibit SU(2) symmetry.
• Triplet substructures are proposed to cause energy to exhibit SU(3) symmetry.

It is proposed that the reason each force of nature exhibits a particular symmetry of nature is because each manifestation of a force is a transfer of energy, and the transferred energy exhibits the symmetry of the structure of the particle from which the energy is transferred.

• Energy interacting with a singlet unit matter substructure exhibits U(1) symmetry.
• Energy interacting with a doublet matter substructure exhibits SU(2) symmetry.
• Energy interacting with a triplet unit matter substructure exhibits SU(3) symmetry.

Interactions between particles are transfers of energy. Energy transfers, or interactions, cannot take place unless the configurations of energy between interacting particles is of a mutually conforming type, which if correct, allows the transfer to take place.

U(1) symmetry exhibited by the electromagnetic force is proposed to be caused by a set amount of energy being bound by a singlet unit particle of matter. Electrons and positrons are proposed to have singlet unit particle of matter substructures.

Neutrinos and their proposed doublet substructure are proposed to be the source of SU(2) symmetry exhibited by weak nuclear force interactions.

The energy bound in the proposed quark triplet unit particle of matter substructure is proposed to be the source of the SU(3) symmetry exhibited in the strong force interactions.

A symmetry in particle interactions is caused by a set amount of energy being bound in a group of unit particles of matter, and then energy being transferred between the interacting particles the configured by the energy bound structure in the particle structure.

The configuration of energy bound in a particle is a set amount and that is why the total energy rotations among the quarks must sum to a set amount of energy.

Noether's Theorem states that there is a one to one relationship between each conservation law of nature and a symmetry of nature.

 Conservation Law Symmetry Energy Time displacements Linear Momentum Spatial displacements Angular Momentum Spatial rotations Electric Charge 1 axis complex rotation U(1) Symmetry (phase rotations in a complex field) Color Charge 3 axes complex rotation SU(3) Symmetry (rotations in 8 dimensional color space)

Table 1

It is proposed that the source of both the electric charge symmetry and the color charge symmetry is the unit particle of matter substructure composing the particles that exhibit the charge, be it electric charge or color charge.

The energy that is bound in the particle structure interacts with energy (force) in a cause and effect fashion which manifests the unit particle of matter substructure of the particle exhibiting the force (energy).

U(1) SYMMETRY
S
ECTION 1

The manifestations of U(1) symmetry in energetic interactions between particles is caused by the interacting particle having energy hosted by a host singlet unit charge particle of matter.

U(1) symmetry is proposed to be caused by energy rotation about a singlet unit charge particle of matter.

U(1) symmetry occurs in complex space because a complex number plane allows plotting of cyclic functions, by phase. A complex number plane allows the plotting of the phase of cyclic functions because the i-axis is rotated 90° from the zero phase axis.

The complex space has phase zero on one axis and a 90° phase rotation on the other axis. This allows the plotting of phase rotation. Multiplying by i is equivalent to a 90° rotation.

Two rotations by i is equivalent to a 180° rotation. Therefore two 90° rotations, i x i = -1, is equivalent to a 180° rotation.

TWO SINGLETS

Electromagnetic interactions exhibit U(1) symmetry because they involve a single axis of energy in rotation about a single unit charge unit particle of matter.

Two singlet centers of charge interacting, such as an electron and a proton, are described mathematically as two independent centers of energy rotation with a force carrier causing the interaction.

SU(2) SYMMETRY
S
ECTION 2

The source of SU(2) symmetry in weak force interactions is proposed to be the doublet substructure of the neutrino which is involved in the weak force interaction. The doublet substructure is composed of two unit particles of matter bound together. The SU(2) symmetry exhibited by weak force interactions is proposed to impart energy onto the doublet substructure of the neutrino in a way such that the energy is interacting with both unit particles of matter in the neutrino doublet substructure.

D
OUBLETS

A doublet substructure is massless, meaning there is no internal structural energy in the structure of the doublet. The energy of an electron neutrino is proposed to be 100% momentum energy as the neutrino has no rest mass.

It is proposed that the weak force interaction that produces the neutrino imparts the momentum energy onto the neutrino and reflects the two unit particle of matter doublet substructure of the neutrino.

PHOTONS

Why do photons exhibit U(1) symmetry if their substructure is a doublet rather than a singlet?

This is a question that the author is not clear on the answer. Photons are proposed to have a doublet substructure and two directions of energy rotation, but photons are associated with the U(1) symmetry of electromagnetic force. One possible answer is that the two directions of energy rotation in photons can be described by two axis symmetry of 2 U(1) centers of rotation.

SU(2) o U(1) SYMMETRY

There are two symmetries to cover in the SU(2) category because there are two symmetries involved the weak force.

SU(2)U(1) is exhibited by the weak force because the weak force involves singlet substructures of electrons and positrons [electromagnetic force, U(1)] interacting with the doublet substructures of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos [weak force, SU(2)].

NEUTRON WEAK FORCE DECAY

SU(2)U(1) is exhibited by the weak force decay of a neuron involves the singlet substructures of electrons and positrons [electromagnetic force, U(1)] and the doublets substructures of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos [weak force, SU(2)].

In the diagram above, the same arrows indicate the north magnetic dipole of the particle.
The larger arrows indicate the particle momentum.

SU(3) SYMMETRY
SECTION 3

The SU(3) symmetry exhibited by the strong force in interactions involving quarks is proposed to be caused by a set amount of bound energy within the quark triplet substructure being in a closed loop rotation about the quark substructure. The three unit particles of matter within the triplet substructure of quarks is proposed to be the source of the tripolar color charge exhibited by quarks.

FIRST FAMILY QUARKS

The SU(3) symmetry is caused by the energy rotation about the three unit charge particles of matter in the quark substructure being a constant discreet amount of energy, and having three U(1) sets of axes.

The energy within the quark must be in a harmonic state in its confinement in the quark triplet substructure such that at every complete rotation the energy is starting its rotation at a harmonic interval.

Color charge symmetry of quarks is proposed to be the result of a triplet compound of three unit charge particles of matter sharing energy in a strong force bond with the three poles of color charge caused by the three unit charge particles of matter in the quark triplet substructure to which the quark energy is bound.

The 'SU' in SU(3) stands for 'Special Unitary'. Special Unitary means the three unit particles in the quark substructure share a common set amount of energy bound between the three unit particles of matter in the quark substructure, and that the energy is in a closed loop rotation about quark substructure. The '3' in SU(3) derives from the three unit particles of matter in the quark triplet substructure, and the fact that there are three axes of rotation.

SU(3) symmetry is caused by a three unit particles of matter within the quark triplet structure having a particular amount of shared energy in the closed loop rotation about the triplet quark substructure (special). Interactions with the quark structural energy reflect the quark substructure and the energy bound to it.

Part III Chapter 9 The Rotation of Energy
Part III Chapter 11 Quantum Mechanics

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