THE NATURE OF MATTER

PART I   THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

CHAPTER 3  THE STEPS OF DEDUCTION

S
TEP 2  DOUBLET SUBSTRUCTURES

Bottom of Step 2: Triplet Unit Matter Substructures
Top of Step 2: Doublet Unit Matter Substructures

There were four steps of deduction were followed in deducing the existence of the background of matter.

NEXT: STEP 3 Massless Doublet Substructures
PREVIOUS: STEP 1 Triplet Substructures


BOTTOM OF STEP 2
TRIPLET UNIT MATTER SUBSTRUCTURES

Question: If triplet substructures and singlet substructures exist, what about doublets?
Answer: There is evidence that neutrinos have a doublet unit particle substructure.
Evidence Of The Doublet Unit Charge Substructure

The question Step 2 seeks to answer is, if a triplet substructure of quarks can explain quark fractional charge mathematics, and if a singlet unit particle substructure can be proposed for the substructure of an electron, could the other first family member of the standard model, the neutrino, be explained with a doublet substructure?

The answer to that question is elucidated in the affirmative in the following sections.

QUESTION:
I
F QUARKS HAVE TRIPLET UNIT MATTER SUBTRUCTURES,

Step 1 describes how a triplet substructure of quarks explains quark fractional charge mathematics.

AND IF ELECTRONS COULD BE SINGLET COMPOUNDS,

Since Step 1 determined that a triplet substructure of unit charge particles allows for a group math explanation of quark fractional charge, it is natural to wonder if electrons, and their anti-matter counterparts, positrons, could be explained with a combination of energy and a singlet unit particle of charged matter in its substructure.

Suppose for the purposes of investigating a unit particle of matter substructure line of thought, that electrons are a composite structure involving a combination of a single unit charge of matter and .51 MeV of mass-energy.

It is not proposed that the unit particles composing electrons may exist as independent entities alone without a surrounding complement of energy. Rather is proposed that a unit particle of matter composing the substructure of an electron requires energy to manifest as a singlet, and a minimum of .51 MeV of mass-energy is required for the singlet to exist independently. The unit particles of charged matter can be supposed to form the root structure, which in combination with energy, composes the electrons and positrons.

COULD NEUTRINOS BE DOUBLET COMPOUNDS?

The supposition then is that both quarks and anti-quarks, and electrons and positrons, are as particle types, constructed of unit particles of matter combined with quantum allotments of mass-energy. With quarks and electrons conjectured to have a unit particle substructure, only neutrinos are left as particles in the Standard Model that are not theorized to have a substructure composed of unit charge unit particles of matter.

Could neutrinos have a deeper more fundamental unit charge particle substructure also? A doublet substructure would be neutral as are neutrinos. What other properties of neutrinos might a doublet substructure explain?

If the neutrino were also composed of unit charge unit particles of matter, then all of the particles in the Standard Model, except for the moment photons, would have as their internal substructure more fundamental unit charge, unit particles of matter.




ANSWER:
THERE IS EVIDENCE OF THE NEUTRINO DOUBLET SUBSTRUCTURE

Phenomena offered as evidence of the doublet substructures of neutrinos:

Neutrino Magnetic Dipole
The Two Possible Alignments of Magnetic Dipoles in a Doublet Substructure
Source of the Magnetic Dipole of Neutral Neutrinos
Why There are Only Two Types of Electron Neutrinos
Neutrino Helicity
Neutron Magnetic Dipole
Weak Force Parity Violation

NEUTRINO MAGNETIC DIPOLE

The Two Possible Alignments of Magnetic Dipoles in a Doublet Substructure
Source of the Magnetic Dipole of
Neutral Neutrinos
Why There are Only Two Types of Electron Neutrinos

The supposition that quarks might be composed of triplet groups of positive and negative unit particles of matter leads directly to the question of whether neutrinos might be composed of a doublet group of positive and negative unit particles of matter. The first thing to do then is investigate what a doublet substructure would entail.

The Two Possible Alignments of Magnetic Dipoles in a Doublet Substructure

Consider the magnetic dipoles of a positron and an electron, which may have as their root substructure a singlet unit particle of matter.

The magnetic fields of the positron and the electron have been modeled as being caused by the "spin" of the charged lepton causing a current. The spin of the charged lepton causes a current around the lepton, with the direction of the current the same as the direction of the spin of the lepton. The current around the lepton generates a magnetic field, the direction of which follows either the right hand rule or the left hand rule, depending on the charge of the current.

The positive current of the positron generates a magnetic field that follows the right hand rule, as indicated by the curved arrows on each side of the current around the positron. The negative current of the electron generates a magnetic field which follows the left hand rule as indicated by the curved arrows on each side of the current around the electron. The larger elliptical loops represent magnetic lines of force.

There are only two possible configurations where the magnetic dipoles of the composing unit particles of matter forming the doublet are aligned north to south. The neutral doublet could form with either the positive unit particle at the northern most position on a common magnetic dipole, or with the negative unit particle at the northern most position on a common magnetic dipole.

Let us not worry yet about the neutrino being a doublet and having a quantum angular momentum of 1/2, because we are using the electron-positron annihilation as a guide, and we know that after the annihilation all of the mass-energy of the electron and of the positron has been carried away in the resultant photons. Therefore, any remaining unit particles of matter in a resultant doublet would have zero mass-energy with which to exhibit angular momentum. A neutrino doublet substructure need not be supposed to have mass-energy on either of the composing unit particles of matter forming the substructure.

The reason physicists do not think a neutrino could be composed of a two particle substructure is because they assume that both particle components must have quantum angular momentum. However, the triplet substructure of quarks explaining quark math allows for a clear distinction to be made between energy and matter as components of particles. The distinction between energy and matter as components of particles allows us to postulate that the unit particles of matter from the substructures of the annihilating electron and positron particles may still exist after the annihilation, only with all of the energy squeezed from the electron and positron.

The supernova 1987A proved neutrinos have zero rest mass as the neutrinos arrived at the same time as the photons. A rest mass of zero for neutrinos means there is no energy involved in the structure of the particle, and that 100% of the mass-energy of the neutrino is momentum energy.

Momentum energy applies to the particle as a whole, rather than at the level of the unit particles of matter composing the particle structure.

Using the positron-electron annihilation has a guide, in which all of the mass-energy of the annihilating lepton pair is converted to the two resulting photons, we might speculate that after the annihilation the two unit particles of matter which formed the structure of the two leptons may be bound together and still in existence, but with all of the energy squeezed from the lepton pair. Quantum angular momentum requires mass-energy, and since we may suppose that after the annihilation the doublet substructure has no mass bound to it, we can expect that the resultant doublet particle of matter will have no quantum angular momentum.

Once one has posited the quark substructure and investigated electron substructure, one becomes aware of the difference between matter and mass-energy as components of particles, which then allows for a deeper understanding of what rest mass is. Rest mass is the mass-energy bound in the particle structure.

The Source of the Magnetic Dipole of Neutral Neutrinos

The vast majority of physicists shamelessly gloss over the fact the neutral particles like neutrons and neutrinos have magnetic dipoles. They attribute the magnetic dipole on a neutral particle to just more strange magic of a non-causal quantum world. It is an affront to science that so many physicists think that cause and effect does not apply in the quantum world. Instead of realizing that their explanations are what are lacking, they toss away the bedrock of science, cause and effect, and regulate to God the responsibility of guiding the quantum world, much as humanity once did for the motion of the stars and planets.

Magnetic dipoles on neutral particles is a glaring signal that there must be a deeper structure involved in the neutral particle which accounts for the neutral particle having the magnetic field. Simple cause and effect must apply. A doublet substructure of two unit particles of matter, each having an inherent magnetic dipole due to its electrical charge, accounts for a magnetic dipole on a neutral neutrino.

The fact alone that a doublet substructure explains how a neutral particle could have a magnetic dipole is cause to pursue the investigation of the neutrino doublet substructure further.

Why There Are Only Two Types of Electron Neutrinos

Straight away upon investigating the magnetic dipole of a doublet substructure, we have a possible explanation of the fact that there are only two types of electron neutrinos. The explanation is there are only two possible alignments of the doublet substructure.

One of the two possible alignments of the doublet substructure is with the positive unit of matter at northern end of the common magnetic dipole and the other possible alignment is with the negative unit particle of matter at northern end of common magnetic dipole
.

NEUTRINO HELICITY

One is naturally lead next to wonder if there is a connection between the mysterious helicity of neutrinos and a doublet substructure.


The two alignments of the doublet substructure, one with a positive unit particle of matter at the northern end of the common magnetic dipole and one with the negative unit particle of matter at the northern end of the common magnetic dipole, allow for conjecture on the reason for the mysterious asymmetry exhibited by neutrino spin
.


Left Right
Hand Spin
Hand Spin

By hypothesizing the two unit particles of matter, and then making the distinction between matter and energy as particle components, one is lead to consider if energy and the unit particles have an inherent helicity which accounts for the left and right hand rules of magnetic force. It is presently unexplained why a negative current causes a magnetic force perpendicular to the current and why the direction of the magnetic force follows the left hand rule. This fact is a law, not an explanation.

The Inherent Spin Direction Supposition

Suppose that there is a basic asymmetry in the unit particles of matter themselves, such that energy binds to the unit particles in an asymmetric fashion because of the inherent asymmetry of the unit particles of matter. Suppose that energy binds to the negative unit particle of matter in left hand rotation with regard to the north end of the magnetic dipole. Suppose that energy binds to the positive unit particle of matter in right hand rotation with regard to the north end of the magnetic dipole.

Now we can speculate a possible reason for the asymmetry of neutrino spin. The asymmetry of neutrino spin may be caused by momentum energy being imparted onto the doublet substructure by the weak force in a manner subject to the asymmetry of the unit particle of matter accepting the energy.

Now we can begin to see an explanation of why magnetic force is perpendicular to the direction of the current, and why magnetic force follows the left and right hand rules. The reason may be that energy is in rotation about the unit particle of matter. It could well be that the energy rotation is described by quantum angular momentum.


NEUTRON MAGNETIC DIPOLE

The neutron is another neutral particle that has an unexplained magnetic dipole.

In
neutron decay, the neutron decays 100% of the time into an anti-neutrino and an electron. The anti-neutrino always exhibits right hand spin and the electron always exhibits left hand spin.

It would be only natural to conjecture given the possible doublet substructure of the neutrino explaining why there are two and only two types of electron neutrinos, and given the possible doublet substructure of the neutrino also explaining why the neutral neutrino has a magnetic dipole, that the reason for the neutral neutron having a magnetic dipole is due to the internal structure of the neutron.

It is a well known fact that the wave function of an electron is much larger than the wave function of a neutron, and therefore that there can be no electron within the neutron structure. That does not mean, however, that the unit particle of matter that forms the substructure of the electron which is ejected in the neutron decay cannot be a part of the neutron structure. In fact, it does not even mean that the electron cannot still be an entity within the neutron structure. It just means that the weak force which binds the anti-neutrino and electron within the neutron structure has substantially altered the wave function of the electron that it is part of the wace function of the neutron.

Suppose purely for the sake of investigation that a neutron has a substructure which is composed of the unit particles of matter which form a proton, an anti-neutrino, and an electron, since that is what a neutron decays into 100% of the time.

Neutron

Comparing the neutron to the proton indicates that the magnetic dipole moment is substantially altered by the weak force bound electron's componets, energy and the unit particle of matter. The magnetic dipole moment of a proton is +2.79 units where the magnetic dipole moment of a neutron is -1.91 units. The magnetic dipole moment of the neutron indicates that the neutron has a negatively charged shroud covering the proton substructure component.

The proposed view of the neutron as a proton with a weak force bound electron is that the electrical field of the electron is folded over the proton giving the proton a partial negative covering, which accounts for the magnetic dipole moment of -1.91 units and the negatively charged shroud covering the proton.

The weak force bound electron components of a negative unit particle of matter and .51 MeV of energy within the neutron are proposed to be so substantially altered that the electron is unrecognizable as an electron within the neutron. The electron is proposed to be either broken into its components or molded beyond recognition, but its negative shroud is observed, and measured.

WEAK FORCE PARITY VIOLATION

Consider
neutron decay. The neutron decays 100% of the time into an anti-neutrino and an electron. The anti-neutrino always exhibits right hand spin and the electron always exhibits left hand spin.

It would be only natural to conjecture given the possible doublet substructure of the neutrino explaining why there are two and only two types of electron neutrinos, and the possible doublet substructure of the neutrino also explaining why the neutral neutrino has a magnetic dipole, that the reason for the unidirectional spin of the electron and anti-neutrino produced in neutron weak force decay is due to the internal structure of the neutron.

One of the bigger mysteries of present physics is the asymmetry of the weak force decay. The mystery can be explained with the knowledge of the unit particle of matter substructure of the weak force bound component unit particles of matter in the weak force bond and the fact that the component unit particles of matter in the weak force bond must have their magnetic dipoles aligned.


It is propsed that the reason the anti-neutrino exhibits right hand spin and that the electron exhibits left hand spin in neutron decay is because the anti-neutrino and electron were magnetically aligned within the neutron substructure. When the doublet substructure accepts the momentum energy in neurton decay and becomes a neutrino, it can only accept the energy if it has the correct doublet substructure to accept the right hand spin energy rotation.


TOP OF STEP 2
DOUBLET UNIT MATTER SUBSTRUCTURES

A possible doublet substructure of neutrinos explains the following two characteristics of the electron neutrino:

Neutrino helicity is explained with a doublet substructure.
The neutrino magnetic dipole is explained with a doublet substructure.

A unit particle of matter substructure is now postulated for all Standard model particles except photons.

A unit particle of matter substructure explains the magnetic dipole of the neutron.
A unit particle of matter substructure explains weak force parity violation.
A unit particle of matter substructure explains the zero spin of bosons.

Photons

A neutrino doublet substructure explains neutrino helicity and how a neutral particle could have a magnetic dipole. With the neutrino now having a unit matter substructure postulated from the evidence, the only Standard model particle left is photons.

Photons are basically two counter-rotating sets of energy. A doublet substructure not only provides a framework for two sets of counter-rotating energy, the charge of the counter-rotating energy could cause the electric fields with the exact right angles to conform to the electromagnetic propagation of photons.

A unit matter substructure is postulated for all Standard Model Particles. With the neutrino and photons both conforming to a doublet substructure model, the possibility of a doublet unit matter substructure actually existing requires consideration.

The Standard Model particle substructures are modeled below with the arrowed loops representing energy and the unit particles of matter represented by the circles with positive and negative signs:

  

In the above illustrations:
units of matter are represent by circles with plus and minus signs
electrons and positrons have singlet unit matter substructures
up and down quarks have triplet unit matter substructures
neutrinos have doublet unit matter substructures
The 'N' indicates north on the unit matter substructure magnetic dipole.




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STEP 4 A Background of Massless Doublets

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Last Update: October 7, 2000Created: April 4, 1997

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