THE NATURE OF MATTER

PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED PART III

QUANTUM MECHANICS
C
HAPTER 11


Section 1
The Wave Particle Duality
The Two Slit Experiment
Section 2
Non-Locality
The Faster than Light Barrier Experiments
The Teleportation Experiments
Section 3 The Unit Energy Particles
Plank's Equation E=hv
Unit Photons


THE WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY
S
ECTION 1

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory allows an obvious explanation for the wave-particle duality of nature because the Unit Matter Substructure Theory deduced that all Standard Model fundamental particles were constructed from just two types of structural components, unit matter components and unit energy components.

The energy component of particle causes the wave like behavior of the particle and actually carves the wave function exactly as the known math describes.

The unit matter substructure component of the particle causes the particle like behavior of the particle because the energy carving the wave function (rest mass plus momentum) is ultimately bound (or localized) to the unit matter structure of the particle, and therefore goes where the matter substructure goes.

The Explanation of Wave-Particle Duality
Energy bound to a unit matter substructure of a particle causes the wave-like behavior of the particle, because the bound energy quanta carve the wave function.
The unit matter substructure of the particle is responsible for the particle-like behavior of the particle because the energy is bound to the point like matter substructure.

The particle like behavior of a particle is caused by the structural energy of a particle (rest mass) being bound and localized to the unit matter substructure of the particle.

The wave like behavior of a particle is caused by the energy component of a particle being bound in closed loop rotation about its host unit matter substructure. The energy dynamics are described by the quantum mechanical wave function.

See the explanation below of the Two Slit Experiment for a specific example of how knowing of the two components of electrons and photons, units of energy and units of matter, allows for a simple cause and effect explanation of the wave like behavior and of the particle like behavior in the experiment.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory provides an explanation of the nature of rest mass. The rest mass of a particle is structural energy which is bound in closed loop rotation to the unit matter substructure of the particle.

The reason an electron's energy requires two rotations to be back in phase, the 720o of rotation mystery, is because one rotation is only one half the wave. The bound energy requires two rotations to complete one full wavelength.

The rotation of the rest mass energy about its host substructure is described by the wave function of the particle as deciphered by quantum physics.


Energy Wave Harmonics Graphs
The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics
Sigmund Brandt and Dietter Dahmen
Springer-Verlag 1995


The Unit Matter Substructure Theory deduces that the particle like behavior of a particle is caused by the rest mass energy being bound to the unit matter substructure of the particle. The Unit Matter Substructure Theory deduces the wave like behavior of a particle is caused by the bound structural energy quanta (rest mass) which trace the wave function of the particle.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory easily explains the wave-particle nature of particles in the classic two slit experiment.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory explains why in the two slit experiment that single electrons sent though the slits, one single electron at a time, cause an interference pattern. An interference pattern emerges because the energy component of the electrons travels like the wave function describes, through both slits.

The energy component of the electron traces the wave function of the electron. It is the energy component that interferes with itself while traversing the two slits, and it is the energy component that causes the interference pattern to emerge. Energy is responsible for the wave nature of the electrons.

The particle nature of a particle is caused by the rest mass energy of the particle being bound to the unit particle of matter substructure of the particle in a point like substructure, which causes the energy to stay local.

THE TWO SLIT EXPERIMENT

The Two Slit Experiment is the classic example of the wave-particle duality of light. In a classic Two Slit Experiment, a monochromatic source of light is sent through two parallel slits in a barrier, causing an interference pattern to form on a target wall behind the two slit barrier due to the waves of light from the two slits interfering.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory provides the answer to the puzzling wave-particle nature of photons observed in the Two Slit Experiments - while the physical matter doublet substructure of the photon must physically travel through one slit or the other, and the energy, as described by the wave function, travels through both slits and interferes with itself, even when just one photon at a time goes through one of the two slits.


Photon Doublet Unit Particle of Matter Substructures
[The unit circles represent unit particles of matter
(and the closed loops represent closed loop energy rotations)

Young's Two Slit Experiment U of Virginia
Young's Double Slit Experiment U of Winnipeg Canada

The wave nature of the light is demonstrated in the Two Slit Experiment by the interference pattern forming on the target wall, as described by a the wave mechanics of energy traveling through two slits.

Light energy waves coming through each of the two slits, interferes, causing an interference pattern to emerge on the target wall described by classic wave mechanics.

The particle nature of light is demonstrated by the fact that if one detects the passage of a photon through one of the slits, every photon is measured to have 100% of the energy expected of a photon for that wavelength.

The Complimentary Principle for the wave-particle duality of light states that light can be detected either in the wave state or in the particle state, but not both states at the same time.

The surprising thing is that even single photons sent through the two slit barrier, one at a time, form an interference pattern on the target.


How a Single Photon in the Two Slit Experiment causes an Interference Pattern

How can a single particle of light interfere with itself when the photon always has 100% of the energy when detected at one of the slits?

The short answer the unit particles of matter forming the particle substructure are responsible for the particle behavior and the energy quanta are responsible for the wave behavior.

A single photon sent through one of the two slits causes an interference pattern like a wave because the because the energy component goes through both slits, and interferes with itself, like a wave, because it is a wave, a wave of energy quanta.

A photon measured at one of the two slits always has the right energy for the light source manifesting the particle like behavior of a concentrated mass

If you measure which slit the photon goes through, you collapse the energy caused wave function by capturing the energy, and the interference pattern disappears. If you close one slit, the energy portion cannot interfere with itself.

In Complimentary Principle language, the wave properties have ceased to be observed because the wave function has collapsed when the particle is observed (detected).

In the words of Complimentary Principle language, as long as the energy wave can go through both slits, the wave will interfere with itself and cause an interference pattern, but as soon as a observation is made to determine slit the photon particle substructure went through, the wave is collapsed and the interference pattern stopped.

The detection of through which slit the photon goes, collapses the wave function of the photon, because the detection of the photon captures the photon's energy. However, if the energy component is allowed to go through both slits, the energy will interfere with itself.

Allowing the energy and matter as components model, if one of the slits is blocked, the interference pattern ceases because the energy component can no longer travel through both slits.


The energy component of a photon is responsible for the wave function of the photon as the energy travels through both slits (the wave nature). The unit matter substructure which hosts the energy of the photon, must physically pass through one slit or the other (the particle nature).


image of electron approaching the double slit

The electron, composed of a negative unit of charged electrical matter (green circle) and energy (pink ellipse),

approaching the two slits as indicated by the arrow.



  Double slit showing electron energy traveling through both slits

The electron's negative unit of charged electrical matter (green circle) component can only pass through one slit,

but the energy wave passes through both slits and interferes with itself.


The energy component within the electron wave function is as described by quantum mechanics moving so fast as to essentially be in all places within the wave function at once.



NON-LOCALITY
S
ECTION 2


Non-locality refers to the speed with which the energy must travel within a particle's wave packet to produce that quantum mechanical wave function.

Any a given time, the energy has a probability of being at a given position within the wave function, and the location of the energy is not dependent at any time on a position of the previous location.

Non-locality experimental evidence indicates that the energy quanta within the wave function are not bound by the speed of light.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory distinguishes units of matter and units of energy as components of Standard Model particles. The Unit Matter Substructure Theory shows that the energy hosted by the substructure of matter in a particle is the rest mass-energy of the particle and that the reason a particle with rest mass cannot reach the speed of light is because a closed loop energy rotation will always have a component drag against the background, which will increase with velocity.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory deduces that it is the energy quanta that trace out the wave packet of a particle, exactly as indicated by the particle's quantum wave function mathematics.

The energy motion within the wave packet as given by the wave function is far faster than the speed of light as indicated by several interesting experiments which are discussed below:

The quantum angular momentum wave speed of the electron.
The "Faster than Light?" experiments by Raymond Y. Chiao, UC Berkeley
The Photon Teleportation experiments at IBM Research.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory deduces that the energy particles within the wave packet carve the wave exactly as the wave function indicates, however fast that maybe.

It is just that the wave packet in its entirety cannot travel faster than the speed of light because it is moving that background ocean, whereas within the wave packet, a path may have been cut through the background the previous trip through carving out the energy wave.

The Unit Matter Substructure Theory deduces that the wave function, or wave packet of a particle, is the path traced by its energy particles.

A particle's wave function is a closed loop path in which the bound energy travels. In a closed loop path, the energy particle has already cleared the background ocean and may have a force free path.

When the wave packet in its entirety must travel through the background of matter there will be an electromagnetic interaction which limits the motion to the speed of light, but within the wave packet the energy could be, and is indicated by the math to be, traveling in excess of the speed of light.


THE QUANTUM ANGULAR MOMENTUM ROTATION WAVE SPEED

The rotation speed of the wave function of an electron at the proposed radius of an electron where a half wavelength equals the circumference, far exceeds the speed of light, which is another indication that the energy within the wave packet is not bound by the same electromagnetic bounds like the entire wave packet when it moves through the background of matter, rather that within the wave packet the energy traverses the wave packet just as the wave function math describes.

THE FASTER THAN LIGHT BARRIER EXPERIMENTS

In an August 1993 Scientific American article by Raymond Y. Chiao, UC Berkeley, and Paul G. Kwiat and Aephraim M. Steinberg entitled "Faster Than Light?" the authors explain how photons of light appear to tunnel through a barrier in a time faster than that of the speed of light, which is another observation that the energy within the wave packet travels far in excess of the speed of light.

The reason quantum wave mechanics describe the probability of finding the energy in that location of the wave packet is because the energy carves the wave packet.

Raymond Y. Chiao, UC Berkeley, Paul Kwiat - Chiao Group Research


THE TELEPORTATION EXPERIMENTS

In the quantum teleportation of photons, physicists transfer a property of a photon to another photon at a remote location, basically instantaneously.

Scientific American "Beam Me Up, Scottie!" article and IBM Research announcement.





UNIT ENERGY PARTICLES
S
ECTION 3


PLANCK'S EQUATION

Definitions:

E = hv indicates that energy is composed of discrete quanta, or unit energy particles.

Rest-mass energy is unit energy particles bound as structural energy within a particle structure.

Momentum energy is unit energy particles that are responsible for the kinetic energy of a particle.

Energy particles must always be bound to a unit particle of matter, or hosted by matter.


Planck's equation:

E = hv

Planck's equation indicates that energy is quantized, or in other words, that energy is composed of basic unit quantities.

Since energy is structured as quanta, it follows that the base quanta, or fundamental units of energy, cannot be divided. Therefore, a quantum of energy is a fundamental unit of energy.


UNIT PHOTONS

The units of energy indicated by Planck's equation contain a pair of unit energy particles, each unit energy quanta with spin 1/2, and with two energy units summing to spin 1 for the total photon.

With the knowledge of the doublet substructure of a photon, it follows that there must be a minimum of two unit energy particles in a unit photon as indicated in Planck's equation because the photon was deduced to have two counter rotating energy sets in rotation about the two unit particle of matter hosts within the doublet substructure.




Part III Chapter 10 Symmetry
Part III Chapter 12 Relativity

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Last Update July 29, 2000Created May 7, 1997

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