THE NATURE OF MATTER

PART I  THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

CHAPTER THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

Section 1 The Background of Matter
Section 2 Tour of the Steps of Deduction of the Background of Matter
Section 3 About Part I

NEXT: Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction:  Step 1 From Fractional Charge of Quarks to Triplet Substructures

THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER     Section 1

A universal background of matter was deduced to exist in four steps of deduction. The background of matter was deduced to exist, not created ad hoc.

Part I Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction details the four steps of deduction which resulted in the deduction of the universal background of matter.

Summary of the Steps of Deduction

The universal background of matter was deduced to be composed of particles of pure matter, particles which are made only of matter and which have zero energy in their particle structure.

In loose analogy to how an invisible ocean of air covers the surface of the Earth, an invisible background ocean of massless matter was deduced to permeate the universe. The background ocean particles are invisible because they have no energy, neither rest-mass energy nor momentum energy.

The first two steps of deduction deduce the unit particle of matter substructure of the Standard Model particles from known properties of quarks and neutrinos. The unit particle of matter substructure distinguishes units of matter and units of energy as components of Standard Model particles.

In the illustrations below, the quarks each have three unit particles of matter in their substructure and the neutrinos each have two unit particles of matter in their substructure. The unit particles of matter are represented by circles while the rotation of bound energy is represented the elliptical loops.

        

The prior deduction of the unit particle of matter substructure of Standard Model particles allowed for the subsequent deduction of the background of matter because it elucidated the distinction between units of energy and units of matter as components of Standard Model particles.

The unit particle of matter substructure theory of Standard Model particles gives direct physical mechanisms to explain these phenomena:

1 The fractional charge of quarks.
2 The unidirectional quantum angular momentum of neutrinos.
3 Why there are only two members in each neutrino family group.
4 The source of weak force parity violation.
5 The source of the wave-particle duality of Standard Model particles.

The third step of deduction involved deducting that the unit particle substructure of Standard Model particles indicated the possible existence of a doublet substructure that had no energy in its structure, a doublet substructure particle which was 100% matter and 0% energy. Energyless doublets would be the most common form of matter as an energyless doublet would be the lowest possible energy state of matter, zero energy.

The fourth step of deduction involved looking for, and then finding, evidence of particles of pure matter. Chapter 4 offers seven categories of well known phenomena as direct evidence of the existence of the universal background of matter. The following are offered as evidence of the existence of the background of matter:

1 Magnetic Flux
2 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation


T
HE UNIT PARTICLE OF MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE OF STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES

The first two steps of deduction, of the four steps of deduction which lead to the realization of the background of matter, deduce that all known matter has an underlying unit particle of matter substructure


Singlet Substructures

Triplet Substructures


Doublet Substructures

In the illustrations above, the circles with the plus and minus signs represent unit particles of matter. Singlet unit matter substructures are electrons and positrons. Quarks up and down have triplet substructures. Neutrinos have doublet substructures, The 'N' indicates north on the substructure magnetic dipole.


Quarks have triplet unit particle of matter substructures which give rise to their fractional charge math. Neutrinos have doublet substructures with energy bound in only one direction of rotation. Photons have doublet substructures with two sets of energy bound in two directions of rotation.


T
HE DEDUCTION OF PARTICLES OF PURE MATTER

The existence of the proposed ubiquitous background ocean of matter particles was deduced from the evidence, not invented ad hoc.

The deduction of the possible existence of particles of pure matter caused the search for their existence. Particles of pure matter having been deduced, allowed for the correct interpretation of the already existing evidence which had already long indicated their existence.


THE STEPS OF DEDUCTION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER


The Four Steps of Deduction

There were four steps of deduction involved in deducing the existence of the universal background ocean of matter. The first step started with the quandary of fractional charge on a fundamental particle problem of quarks and deduced the triplet unit particle of matter substructure of quarks. The second step deduced the substructure of neutrinos and other Standard model particles. The third step deduced structure of pure matter particles, and fourth step deduced a background of pure matter particles.

       
From Quark Fractional Charge to the Universal Background of Matter

The first step of deduction deduced that a triplet unit particle substructure for quarks explains the fractional electrical charge mathematics of quarks.

The first step of deduction is the solution to the problem of the fractional charge on quarks.

After the deduction that quark fractional charge was explained mathematically as group ratios of a triplet unit particle of matter substructure, one was forced to consider the consequences of a possible triplet substructure. If triplet substructures existed in quarks, then could singlet and doublet substructures also exist?

Quark Partials Group Math


The second step of deduction deduced that neutrinos have a doublet unit particle of matter substructure with momentum energy bound in one direction of rotation.

Doublet substructures of neutrinos were deduced to be manifested in three ways:

- neutrino helicity,
- the magnetic dipole of the neutrino,
- only two types of electron neutrinos.

Explanations of the Three Manifestations of a Doublet Substructure by Neutrinos


The third step of deduction deduced the existence of particles with zero energy in their structure, particles made of pure matter.

Since doublet substructures were deduced to be manifested by neutrinos, the consideration of the possible existence of the doublet substructure was forced. A doublet substructure of the positive unit of matter essentially next to the negative unit particle of matter, indicated that the unit particles of matter were not destructible.

If neutrinos were doublets and the unit particles of matter were not destructible, then there should be a doublet particle which had neither rest mass nor momentum energy. A new particle was deduced to possibly exist which had neither rest mass nor momentum energy.

The hypothesized energyless doublet particle was deduced to be composed of two units of particle matter, however with no energy involved in the particle structure, no rest mass-energy and no momentum energy.

The fourth step of deduction deduced that some well known observational evidence directly indicates the existence of the universal background ocean of matter.

Because the hypothesized energyless doublet particle was deduced, and not proposed to fill a need, there was an obligation to look for evidence of the energyless particle of matter. It followed that if an energyless doublet unit particle of matter substructure existed, there might well be a great many of that particle type as that particle type would be the lowest energy state of matter, zero energy.

A great amount of evidence was then realized to have long indicated a background of matter evidence, magnetic flux, and the cosmic microwave background radiation.

The background of matter is proposed to be universal in scope. The background of matter is proposed to be universal in scope because the effects of currents in the background ocean of matter can already be detected as far into the depths of space as we humans can presently observe.



THE CHART OF EXPLANATIONS

The conclusion of the background of matter was a completely unexpected result. However, once the idea of a background of matter was investigated, the existence of the background of matter became obvious as it and the unit particle of matter substructure theory explained dozens of present problems in physics.

The
CHART OF EXPLANATIONS lists present problems in science that are explained with the knowledge of the background ocean of matter and the unit particle of matter substructure of matter.

Knowledgeable readers will no doubt think of one or more of the standard objections that have keep physicists from realizing the existence of the background of matter, but please have faith as all present objections already have a solution provided in this book.
Part III Chapter 14 OBJECTIONS explains the solutions to some of the initial major objections that will occur to the knowledgeable reader, such as the Michelson-Morely experiments, which disproved the existence of the aether. The explanations of the solutions to other major objections are covered in the chapter with the relevant subject title in Part III PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED.

The consequences of a universal background ocean of cold massless matter based on a unit particle of matter substructure of known particles is far-reaching. The unit particle of matter substructure of known matter and the existence of the universal background of matter explain many of the most profound mysteries of present day physics and cosmology.

The CHART OF EXPLANATIONS lists phenomena which are present mysteries in science that are explained with the knowledge of the unit particle of matter substructure of matter. The listed phenomena may seem to be varied and quite unrelated types of physical phenomena at first, yet unit particle substructure theory and the background of matter theory explain them all.

THREE PROPOSALS

The deduction of a universal background of matter was made possible by the prior deduction of the underlying substructure of matter, which is that all known matter has a unit particle of matter substructure. The unit particle of matter substructure theory indicated an unknown particle which had no energy in the particle structure, a doublet particle made of pure matter, no energy. Particles of pure matter were deduced to be what compose the background of matter.

The following three proposals are a summary of the consequences of the deduction of the background of matter.

Three Proposals

1 A background of matter is proposed to exist on a cosmic scale.

2 The constituents of the Universe are proposed to be unit particles of matter and unit quanta of energy.

3 The background of matter particles are proposed to be the source of unit particles of matter.


The three proposals are the result of the four steps of deduction which lead to the deduction of the universal background of matter.

It is proposed that all particles of matter are constructed from just two basic components, unit particles of matter, and units of mass-energy.

The source of all unit particles of matter that form the substructure of Standard Model particles is proposed to be the background doublet particles of pure matter.

MORE EXPLANATION OF THE THREE PROPOSALS




The sections in Chapter 1 are:

1 The Background of Matter top of page
2 Tour of the Steps of Deduction of the Background of Matter
3
About Part I

Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction:  Step 1 From Fractional Charge of Quarks to Triplet Substructures

Part I Chapter 3 The Steps of Deduction
Part I Chapter 4 The Evidence of a Background of Matter
Part III PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED

Title Page of the NATURE OF MATTER
Table of Contents of the NATURE OF MATTER

Comments welcome: jrees@starlight-publishing.com
Last update: February 7, 2001
Created April 4, 199

Copyright 2001
Starlight Publishing Company
Hermosa Beach, CA