Section 1 E=mc2 Mass-Energy and Matter
Section 2 E x B Electromagnetic Propagation
Section 3 E=hv Unit Photons

Section 1

The deduction of the Unit Particle Substructure Theory of Standard Model particles allowed for the explanation of the famous equation E=mc2 which states that mass and energy are interchangeable quantities because the theory delineated the difference between energy quanta and units of matter as components in structures of Standard Model particles.

The equation does not state that matter and energy are interchangeable quantities, only that combinations of mass-energy are interchangeable.

Mass-energy and matter are two distinctly different entities quantities.

Mass-energy is permanent in nature. The Unit Particle Substructure Theory of Standard Model particles predicts that unit particles of matter are permanent in nature also.

The Unit Particle Substructure Theory of Standard Model particles predicts that energy must be required to be bound to a unit particle of matter at all times.

The Unit Particle Substructure Theory of Standard Model particles deduces that mass-energy bound in a particle as structural energy is rest mass.

Mass-energy bound to a doublet substructure as momentum energy or kinetic energy does not cause the substructure to have rest-mass, just momentum.

Photons have no rest mass because photons have doublet substructures, and doublet substructures have no structural energy in the double particle substructure.

Particles of matter with a rest mass have energy bound in a closed loop as part of the particle structure. Particles are composed of two components, unit charge unit particles of matter and units of mass-energy.

Energy is what causes mass, not unit particles of matter.

Momentum energy is the energy causing the physical motion of a particle.

Section 2

Photons of light are quanta of mass-energy that propagate through spacetime using alternating electromagnetic fields.

from The Universe Explained
by Colin A. Ronan published by Henry Holt 1994

The electrical field is composed of a positive and a negative pole. The magnetic field is also a dipole with a north pole and a south pole.

The electrical field vector points from positive to negative with the sign indicating the direction of the field vector. The magnetic field vector points from south to north and the positive sign indicates the direction of the south-to-north vector.

The electric and magnetic field vectors of the propagation of a photon can be created by the poles of electric charge being placed as shown below.

Section 3

It is proposed that the photon is composed of a doublet substructure with a positive unit of matter and an negative unit of matter, and some number of pairs of energy units.

A unit photon is defined as composed of 2 quanta of energy bound to two units of matter in a doublet substructure.

Planck's Law E=hv indicates that there is h (h bar) energy per cycle or wave.

The quantity h is the amount of energy in one cycle of the two units of energy in rotation about the two units of matter in a doublet in a unit photon.

The frequency value in Planck's Equation is proposed to represent the number of unit photons bound on the doublet substructure of the photon. Each unit photon is pair of energy units and accounts for one cycle of energy (frequency).

Part III Chapter 7 The Nature of Magnetic Flux
Part III Chapter 9 The Rotation of Energy

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Last Update April 22, 2000Created May 7, 1997

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