THE NATURE OF MATTER

PART I   THE BACKGROUND OF MATTER

CHAPTER 3  THE STEPS OF DEDUCTION

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TEP MASSLESS DOUBLETS

There were four steps of deduction followed in deducing the existence of the universal background of matter.

BOTTOM OF STEP 3
DOUBLET SUBSTRUCTURES OF UNIT PARTICLES

Question: How could Doublets Possibly Exist?
Answer: Unit Particles of Matter must not be Destructible
Non-Destructive Annihilation Hypothesi
The Alignments of Magentic Dipoles in Electron-Positron Annihilations
The Permanent Nature of Matter

QUESTION: HOW COULD DOUBLETS POSSIBLY EXIST?

How could a doublet substructure particle possibly exist without the two oppositely charged unit particles of matter in the doublet substructure self-annihilating?

ANSWER: THE UNIT PARTICLES OF MATTER MUST NOT BE DESTRUCTIBLE

Suppose then, that because a doublet substructure allows a structural explanation for a magnetic dipole on a neutral neutrino, and because a doublet substructure allows a structural explanation for unidirectional the helicity of the neutrino, that the neutrino actually has a doublet substructure and that the doublet consists of two oppositely charged, unit particles of matter.

The Non-Destructive Annihilation Hypothesis

The supposition that a doublet substructure exists, which is composed of a positive charge unit particle of matter and a negative charge unit particle of matter, leads one to suppose that a mechanism must exist which prevents the two opposite charge unit particles of matter within the doublet substructure from being destroyed.

Since the doublet substructure explains the magnetic dipole of the neutral neutrino and the helicity of the neutrino, one must consider the possibility that a doublet substructure exists in the neutrino. If a doublet substructure exists in the neutrino, then the unit particles of matter must be non-destructible within the doublet substructure.

 THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE ANNIHILATION HYPOTHESIS Unit particles of matter are neither created nor destroyed.

A doublet substructure composed of two opposite charge unit particles of matter forces a non-destructive annihilation hypothesis.

If a positive charge unit particle of matter and a negative unit particle of matter come into equilibrium in the force of attraction between them, which must happen in a doublet, then matter must not annihilate destructively.

Suppose that in the annihilation of an electron and a positron that the structural unit particles of matter are not destroyed in the annihilation, rather suppose that the energy is squeezed out of the electrical fields of the unit particles of matter and that the unit particles still exist after the annihilation.

The Alignment of Magnetic Dipoles in Positron-Electron Annihilations

In the process of an electron-positron annihilation, the electron and positron form an atom of positronium, which is the electron and positron in revolution about a common center.

The collapse of the positronium cannot proceed unless the magnetic dipoles of the positron and electron are aligned north to south. Also, the collapse of the positronium cannot proceed unless the quantum angular momentum of the electron and positron are in counter rotation.

The magnetic dipoles of the two unit particles of matter forming a doublet can align in only the two possible configurations shown below:

The positive north alignment has a positive unit particle of matter at the northern most end of the common magnetic dipole. The negative north alignment has a negative unit particle of matter at the northern most end of the common magnetic dipole.

In a effort to mentally construct a doublet substructure which consists of two units of matter, and using the collapse of the positronium in electron-positron annihilations as a guide, consider the electrical fields of the electron and the positron during the process of mutual annihilation.

As the electron and the positron approach each other in annihilation, the lines of force of the electrical fields are deformed toward the oppositely charged unit particle of matter by the force of electrical attraction.

The mass-energy is squeezed from the structures of the annihilating leptons, and exits as the mass-energy of the resultant photons. The resultant gamma ray photons carry away all of the mass-energy of the two annihilated leptons, 100%. The input energy of the leptons is completely converted to the output energy of two resultant photons.

However, we can now distinguish between units of matter and units of energy as structural components of particles, and we are attempting to picture how a doublet substructure could be constructed, therefore we conjecture that the two units of matter still exist in some structure even after the annihilation energy has been released.

At some point in the annihilation process, after the energy has been released, as the positive and negative units move toward each other, each of the electrical lines of force of the positive unit particle of matter become neutralized by the electrical lines of force of the negative unit particle of matter.

Suppose that when all of the electrical fields lines between the two units of matter are neutralized, that the two particles reach a point of equilibrium in their mutual attraction.

For a doublet substructure to exist, there must be some mechanism that keeps the positive and negative units from ultimately destroying one another. Whatever the process or mechanism that stops the actual destruction is need not be known because the fact is something keeps the units of matter from being destroyed in the doublet substructure.

THE PERMANENT NATURE OF MATTER

The existence of a massless doublet substructure forces the non-destructive annihilation hypothesis to be postulated.

Massless Doublets

The non-destructive annihilation hypothesis declares that units of matter are permanent in nature, like units of energy, and like energy, are neither created nor destroyed.

The doublet substructure is massless meaning it has no rest mass, or equivalently, no structural energy.

TOP OF STEP 3
MASSLESS DOUBLETS

Since the doublet substructure is manifested by neutrinos along three lines of evidence, the existence of a massless doublet substructure had to be considered.

The existence of a doublet substructure causes the non-destructive annihilation hypothesis to be postulated. The non-destructive annihilation hypothesis postulates that matter is permanent in nature, as energy is known to be.

Massless Doublets

Doublet substructures demand that matter, which is composed of units of matter, be permanent in nature.

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STEP 1 Triplet Substructures

Title Page of the Nature of Matter