THE NATURE OF MATTER

THE NATURE OF MATTER PART II

STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES AND FORCES
CHAPTER 2

Section 1 Standard Model Particles

1 Singlets - Electrons and Positrons
2 Doublets - Neutrinos and Photons
3 Triplets - Quarks

Section 2 Standard Model Particle Forces

STANDARD MODEL PARTICLES
SECTION 1

SINGLETS 1 Singlets

Once energy quanta and unit particles of matter were distinguished as separate components of the electron, the reason for the curious half integer spin or quantum angular momentum of electrons was obvious which made perfect sense and fit the math perfectly.

The 1/2 spin means the bound structural energy of the electron is in a closed loop rotation about the host singlet unit particle of matter and the energy wave traveling around the electron requires two complete rotations to complete one full wave. One rotation is only half the fundamental wavelength and the energy is therefore 180 degrees out of phase from its starting phase at one rotation.

In other words, the energy bound to the electron traverses half of its wavelength each energy rotation, and requires two rotations to be back in phase the same phase.

The model above is a logical model, not a physical model. Energy rotation is a complex rotation better visualized with graphs of wave functions like the ones below which show a wave packet in closed loop rotation. Energy rotation about a host unit particle of matter is described by the quantum wave function which describes the wave packet that is carved by the energy quanta. The polar diagrams of three pertinent phases are plotted below. Image from the Picture book Of Quantum Mechanics
Siegmund Brandt / Hans Dieter Dahmen
Springer-Verlag 1995 New York

Charged energy rotation generates a magnetic field that can be viewed as being caused by a current around the center of the unit particle of matter.

In the illustrations below, an electron and a positron are shown with a loop of energy causing a current around the host unit particle of matter. The current causes a magnetic field with a direction of force is dictated by the direction and charge of the current. The magnetic field directions are indicated by the large elliptical loops and the 'N' and "S" which indicate the magnetic dipoles.  The positive current around a positron generates a magnetic field whose direction follows the right hand rule due to the positive charge of the current.

The current around an electron generates a magnetic field whose direction follows the left hand rule due to the negative charge of the current.

An inherent asymmetry between positive bound energy and negative bound energy is indicated by the observational evidence. The weak force asymmetry indicates that energy binds to a positive host unit particle of matter in right hand rotation with respect to the north end of the substructure's magnetic dipole and that energy binds to a negative host unit particle of matter in left hand rotation with respect to the north end of the substructure's magnetic dipole.

with right hand spin and a positron with left hand spin in regards to the orientation of the magnetic field each positron generates.

Positive unit particles of matter are proposed to have inherent right hand helicity (helicity of +1). The negative unit particles of matter are proposed to have inherent left hand helicity (helicity of -1).

The symmetrical relationship between a positron generating a magnetic field whose direction follows the right hand rule and an electron generating a magnetic field whose direction follows the left hand rule indicates a deeper symmetrical relationship between substructures of the two oppositely charged leptons.

Though there is a symmetrical relationship between positrons and electrons, there is an asymmetry involved if considering the leptons individually.

There is an inherent asymmetry between a left hand spin positron and a right hand spin positron. The asymmetry is the alignment of the magnetic dipole

Quantum Intrinsic Angular Momentum

A known property of electrons is quantum spin or intrinsic angular momentum. The quantum spin of an electron is not the same as the rotation of a solid body.

The rotation obviously involves the movement of energy around matter rather than the rotation of the matter itself because movement of charged matter involves magnetic flux and electromagnetic interactions happen at exactly the speed of light, not faster than light, as energy rotation in the wave function is.

DOUBLETS 2

Spin Zero Doublets - Oceanic Particles
Spin 1/2 Doublets - Neutrinos
Spin 1 Doublets - Photons

The doublet particles have no rest-mass as doublets have no internal energy in their construction. Doublets may only have momentum energy which is external energy. Doublets

The doublets are composed of one positive unit and one negative unit, which is therefore neutral in overall charge Doublets have no rest-mass because they have no energy in the structure.

The energy of each particle is indicated by a symbolic circle with an arrow around the unit charge hosting the energy. The 'N' indicates the direction of north on the magnetic dipole.

The reason the photon angular momentum adds to unitary instead of zero is the two energy particles are 180° out of phase, so multiply one energy unit particle by -1.

(The following notation stays with the already established neutrino notation of negative unit hosting energy being +1/2. Or we could assume the neutrinos are 180° out of phase.)

(+1/2) + (-1/2)(-1) = +1 photon(-1/2) + (+1/2)(-1) = -1 anti-photon

SPIN ZERO DOUBLETS - OCEANIC PARTICLES

It is proposed that the unit particles of matter which make up the background oceanic particles are the fundamental root particles from which form the internal structure of all known matter in the universe. All matter is composed of the positive and negative unit charge unit particles of matter. All unit particles of matter originated as massless doublet background oceanic particles. The most fundamental units of charged matter are the components of the background ocean of pure matter particles which are composed of a bound state of two units of charged matter, one positive and one negative, resulting in a overall neutral particle.

Background oceanic particles are the root particles of all matter. Background oceanic particles are particles made of pure matter, particles which have no energy component. Background oceanic particles are composed purely of matter with no energy. The arrows beside the illustration of the Background Oceanic Particles above indicate the north direction of the magnetic dipole.

Background oceanic particles can form with have only two possible alignments, one alignment with the negative charge at the northern most end of the magnetic dipole, and the other alignment with the positive charge at the northern most end of the magnetic dipole.A magnetic field does not manifest without energy.The particles with no rest-mass are particles composed of an even number of unit charges. In this section, only particles composed of two units of matter are discussed.

The most fundamental particles, the Oceanic Particles, are massless, which means that they have no rest-mass, or no internal energy in their construction. Not all massless particles travel at the speed of light. Only those massless particles which possess energy [external energy = momentum] must travel at the speed of light. If a massless particle does not possess energy, it necessarily must have no velocity at all. Velocity implies a reference frame, so zero velocity with respect to what? A Higgs has no velocity with respect to the background ocean. The Oceanic Particles compose the background ocean and therefore has no velocity with respect to the background ocean. The oceanic particles are the background ocean so they have no velocity with respect to the background ocean, unless if infused with energy in the form of momentum. The particles that fit the description of no energy and no rest-mass are the oceanic particles. There are other particles that have no rest-mass, such as photons and neutrinos, but those particles possess energy, momentum energy. With no rest-mass and yet possessing some amount of energy, photons and neutrinos must travel at the speed of light.

Higgs Bosons

Are the background ocean particles the Higgs bosons?

The Higgs field is the mass-generating field and it is said the interaction of rest mass energy with the background mass-causing field is what causes the manifestation of mass.

SPIN 1/2 DOUBLETS - NEUTRINOS

For the neutrinos, it is proposed that only the one unit charge host has bound energy which explains why a doublet substructure could have spin 1/2. Neutrinos have angular momentum energy imparted onto them with singular direction of rotation.

SPIN 1 DOUBLETS - PHOTONS

A Unit Photon is defined as a unitary unit of energy, one hn; where h is Planck's constant and n is the frequency.

Photons have two degrees of freedom indicating the energy configuration is two closed loops, not one.

Unit photons are a pair of units of energy particles that are bound to two oppositely charged component leptinos. The unit photon energy alternates between the unit charge structured particle's motion and the reaction of the background ocean to the movement of charge, which is magnetic flux.

Should be electrons have a spin of one (one direction of angular momentum energy).And photons should have a spin of two (two direction of angular momentum energy).

The reason the photon angular momentum adds to unitary instead of zero is the two energy particles are 180° out of phase, so multiply one unit by -1.

(+1/2) + (-1/2)(-1) = +1 anti-photon(-1/2) + (+1/2)(-1) = -1 photon TRIPLETS 3  Triplets

Anything offered in as a configuration of mass-energy and the unit particles of matter within quark particles is of course, purely speculative. The triplet of unit matter substructure of quarks is certain, but the actual structure of the energy and the unit particles of matter within the quark is as yet not definitely known.

An odd-number of component unit charges dictates that the particle will have a net charge. The electrical force of repulsion of like charge also insures that an odd-numbered unit charge particle will occupy a larger volume of space.

Since the strong force manifests SU(3) symmetry, it might be assumed that at strong force interaction distances that the triplet energy rotation of matter can be considered to be co-located about the same origin.

QUARK MAGNETIC DIPOLES The positrons and electrons binding to form quarks must have their magnetic dipoles aligned north to south. Quarks are the first odd numbered combination of units of matter. The electrical bond between leptons of opposite charge composing the quark is a secondary strong bond, or an intraquark bond.

The fractional charge mathematics of the up and down quarks is explained by the two quarks being composed of a group of three unit charge particles of matter bound together. The mass-energy involved in the bonds formed between the unit charge particles within each quark, must account for the mass of the quark. There must a mechanism which keeps the three unit particles from annihilating may be something to do with there being an odd number unit charge particles, one of which must be repulsive to one other.

STANDARD MODEL PARTICLE FORCES
SECTION 2

STRONG FORCE BONDS

The strong force bonds are defined here primarily by the distance the unit particles of matter are from each other when in equilibrium within the structure of the particle. Strong force bonds involve distances that are the closest possible.

Strong force bond distances have been heretofore regarded as equal, in other words, the math indicates the unit charge components have the same origin, hence SU(3).

For the strong force with three U(1) electromagnetic unit electrical charge particles at the same origin in the quark, group multiply them together, and then origin of the SU(3) symmetry is pretty clear.
Matter is defined in this proposition as the positive and negative unit charge particles of matter which compose the oceanic particles.

PRIMARY BOND

The primary bond is the bond between a positive and a negative unit of matter within an oceanic particle. The internal bond of a doublet is referred to as a primary strong force bond.

The primary bond represents the closest possible distance between the two opposite charge unit particles.

The doublet has no internal structural energy. The unit particles of matter are bound together in the doublet by the force of attraction between particles of opposite electric charge.  The force the binds an oceanic particle acts even with no energy is in the particle. The primary bond is the bond that holds an oceanic particle together, the primary force of attraction being the attraction between positive and negative charged units of matter. In the diagram of the resultant particle above, the arrows indicate the north direction of the magnetic dipole axis of each unit matter component.

Intraquark Strong Force Bond  The primary strong force bond is the bond between unit particles of matter within the quark triplet substructure.

The primary strong force bond is the intraquark bond, the bond that holds a quark together.

Interquark Strong Force Bond

The bond between the unit particles of matter between quarks is referred to as a secondary strong force bond. The secondary strong force bond is the interquark bond, the bond that binds quarks to quarks. The quarks binding to form protons must have their magnetic dipoles aligned, but the quarks need not necessarily be aligned end to end.

WEAK FORCE BONDS

The weak nuclear force is the manifestation of an electrical bond between a unit of matter and a host quark that is formed through the influence of a doublet. The weak force bond exhibits partial folding of the electrical fields of the bound particles. Multiple weak force bonds are hypothesized for a single host particle. The multiple weak force bonds explain why a kaon can decay into either two or three pions.

The weak force bond binds a unit matter to a host quark through the influence of a doublet.

A weak force bond is an electrical bond that binds a lepton and a neutrino to a host particle. The structure of the weak force bond is not clear. Because weak force interactions are very different in nature from strong force interactions, it is clear that the electron and the neutrino are bound to the neutron in a different type of structure from that found in the strong bond. Since the configuration of the energy and matter of the electron within the neutron is not certain, and since the energy and matter of the electron may not even be combined as a individual unit within the neutron, it is mis-leading to state that a weak force bond involves a lepton and neutrino as the energy may be distributed.

Considering that the decay products of the neutron are limited to a proton, an anti-neutrino, and an electron, it seems probable that the proton maintains its individual identity within the neutron. The additional mass of the neutron above that of the proton and electron is due to the weak bond structure itself. Neutrons are half integer spin particles, therefore, the sum of the parts must equal 1/2. Assuming the neutron is traveling in the natural direction on its spin axis, the proton component then has a spin of +1/2, the anti-neutrino has a spin of +1/2 and the electron has a spin of -1/2. In the diagram above, the smaller arrows indicate the natural direction on the spin axis and the larger arrows indicate the direction of travel. Given the above configuration, when the electron and anti-neutrino are ejected away from the proton during decay, the electron will have left hand spin and the anti-neutrino right hand spin.

The electron ejected away from the proton in neutron decay in the above example has left hand spin. The leptons inside the neutron must have their magnetic fields aligned, which is the same as aligning the natural directions of the spin axes. The electron is ejected away from the proton in neutron decay in the natural direction of its spin axis.

The alignment of the composing leptons explains why electrons emitted in weak interactions tend to have left hand spin and why positrons tend to have right hand spin. Exceptions to the rule, such as a right hand spin electron, would have to be caused by an interaction with another particle which caused the electron to flip on its spin axis.

Comparing the neutron to the proton indicates that the magnetic dipole moment is substantially altered by the weak force bonded lepton. The magnetic dipole moment of a proton is +2.8 where the magnetic dipole moment of an electron is -1.9. The magnetic dipole moment of the neutron indicates that the neutron has a negatively charged shroud covering the proton. The proposed view of the weak force bound electron in the neutron is that the electrical field of the electron is folded over the proton.

The weak force bond represents partial folding of the electrical field of a lepton. The tertiary and then secondary strong bonds represent increasingly more complete folding of the electrical fields in their respective bond structures. The primary strong bond within a neutrino represents the most complete folding of a lepton's electrical field.

The primary strong bond in the neutrino is involved in the weak force bond. Under the influence of the neutrino's primary strong bond, the fields of the electron and of a positron interior to the proton are folded. The folding of the electron's field interior to the proton allows the electron to interact primarily with a single positron within an up quark inside the proton. By interacting primarily with a single positron in the proton, the weakly bound electron can be much closer to the proton than is possible in the hydrogen atom where the electron is repelled by the electrons inside the proton.

Consider then that the electron-neutrino combination is bound directly to an individual positron in one of the up quarks of the proton. As will be seen, the attachment of the electron-neutrino combination to a particular lepton of the host particle is valuable in describing the decay of a charged pion. Neutron
present udd
new udu

A conflict exists in the currently held definition of the down quark if the idea of permanence is ascribed to leptons. The down quark in a proton when defined as uud clashes with the down quark in the neutron when the neutron is defined as udd.

When defining the neutron as one up and two down quarks, one down quark is a down quark and the other down quark must be an up quark with a weak force bond to an electron.

The up quark with a weak force bound electron could be designated as u. Then, a neutron could be represented as either udu. The u means that the up quark has a weak force bound lepton.

Question: An electron cannot be a component of a neutron because the electron is a light particle with a large wave function and the large wave function of the electron cannot fit inside the much smaller wave function of the much more massive neutron.

Answer: The electrical field of the electron, and its wave function, are substantially altered by the weak force bond involving the neutrino and the proton which form the neutron. The electron does not exhibit the wave function of an electron when it is bound in the weak force bond within the neutron.

Possibly the electron's components, a single unit of matter and .51 MeV of energy are not even still forming an electron structure at all. The bound electron is deformed beyond recognition.

Wave functions of particles are not static, rather wave functions are dynamically altered by the presence of the energy in the bonds.

The author's view is that the bound electron in a neutron as still being fundamentally an electron in structure, it is just that the electrical field of the electron is substantially altered by the weak force bound negative unit of matter that the electrical field of the electron is deformed as a shroud over the positive charge of the underlying proton.

THE NEUTRON AND THE WEAK FORCE

The weak nuclear force is the manifestation of an energetic bond between a lepton and a host quark that is formed through the influence of a neutrino and deforms the electrical field of the lepton around the host quark nullifying its charge.

The weak force bond represents partial folding of the electrical fields of the bound lepton over of the host quark substructure.

Comparing the neutron to the proton indicates that the magnetic dipole moment is substantially altered by the weak force bound electron. The magnetic dipole moment of a proton is +2.79 units where the magnetic dipole moment of a neutron is -1.91 units. The magnetic dipole moment of the neutron indicates that the neutron has a negatively charged shroud. The proposed view of the weak force bound electron in the neutron is that the electrical field of the electron is partially folded over the proton giving the proton a partial negative covering, which accounts for the magnetic dipole moment of -1.91 units.

Consider the decay of a neutron. A neutron decays 100% of the time into a proton, an anti-neutrino, and an electron. The decay is actually the breakdown of the weak force bound electron bond which releases electron along its north magnetic dipole with left hand bound energy. right hand spin left hand spin

The illustration below shows an electron bound to a proton through a neutrino forming a neutron. A neutron is composed of one up quark and one down quark and another up quark which is complemented with a weak force bound electron.

The electron emitted in neutron decay always exhibits left hand spin. The reason the emitted electron always exhibits left hand spin is because of the alignment of the magnetic dipoles of the composing units of matter within the neutrino and electron and proton quarks.

The electron is emitted in the direction of north on its magnetic dipole. The anti-neutrino is also emitted in the direction of north on its magnetic dipole with the energy bound in rotation about the positron, and therefore exhibiting right hand spin. Neutron
udu

The present accepted definition of the the neutron as one up quark and two down quarks. Once the unit particle substructure of particles was deduced, one down quark was realized to be composed of an up quark and a weak force bound electron, with the weak force implying the associated anti-neutrino.

The reason electrons are not detected in the neutron is because the electron is not an electron when bound in the neutron, under the influence of the weak force bond the electron forms a new structure with the proton.

The down quark which is really an up quark and a weak force bound electron compound needs to be distinguished from a complemented up quark and is represented here as u. Then, a neutron could be represented as udu.

WEAK FORCE PARTICLE BONDS

Kaons are proposed to be complex particle compounds formed from two pions bound together by a weak force particle bond.

 COMPLEX PARTICLE HYPOTHESIS Complex particle compounds are formed from pion or proton sub-units which are bound together through particle bonds.

A particle bond binds two particle sub-units together into a complex particle compound. The sub-units of a particle bond can be either protons or pions. The particle bond is given a distinct name because it may be different in nature from the weak force bond which is required to construct it.

First Order Kaons

The first order kaon decas into a charged pion and a neutral pion.

First Order Charged Kaons  K+ K-

A decay of the positively charged kaon into a positive pion and a neutral pion is shown below.     K+ -> pi+ + neutral pion (pi0)

Charged kaons are composed of a charged pion bound to a neutral pion via a weak force particle bond. Alternatively, the first order charged kaon can be viewed as being composed of two first order neutral pions connected by the particle bond.

The majority of the time the charged kaon decays into a muon and neutrinos. The neutrinos come from the collapse of the neutral pion and from the decay of the charged pion.       K+ -> muon + ( ... neutrinos ... )

ELECTROMAGNETIC BONDS

It is proposed that all forces are electromagnetic in origin because they all originate in the force of attraction between unit of matter of opposite charge.

The electrons which fill each orbital around an atomic nucleus provide most of the volume of the atom, and are held in place by electromagnetic force, the force of electrical attraction between the electron and the nucleus. Chemical bonds are electromagnetic as well. Chemical bonds make molecules, or bind atoms together.

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Last Update: July 25, 1999
Comments: jrees@starlight-pub.com Starlight Publishing
Created April 4, 1996Copyright © 1999 Starlight Publishing Company Hermosa Beach, CA