THE NATURE OF MATTER
MATTER AND ENERGY
Section 1 Matter and Energy
1 The New View of The Universe
2 The Background of Matter
3 The Permanent Nature of Matter
4 The Source of Matter
5 The Standard Model
Section 2 Matter
1 Unit Particles of Matter
2 Inherent Helicity of Matter
Section 3 Energy
1 Unit Particles of Energy
2 Unit Photons
3 Internal and External Energy
4 The Non-Locality of Energy
The New View of the Universe
The purpose of Part II of The Nature of Matter is to orient the reader with the new view of the Universe imposed by the deduction of the unit particle substructure of Standard Model particles and by the subsequent deduction of the existence of a universal background of matter.
Part I of The Nature of Matter details the four steps of deduction which were followed in deducing the existence of the background of matter. Part II is preparation for Part III where many of the biggest present mysteries of physics are explained given the deduction of the unit particle substructure of Standard Model particles and the knowledge of the background of matter.
The following statements are an attempt to summarize the new, one level deeper, view of the structure of matter:
All Standard Model particles have a unit particle of matter substructure.
The unit particle of matter substructure distinguishes units of matter and units of energy as structural components.
The unit particles of matter must be non-destructible and therefore are permanent in nature.
The background of matter is a necessary consequence of the unit particles of matter being permanent in nature.
The background of matter particles were the source of all unit particles of matter in all particle substructures.
Energy is at all times 'hosted' by a unit particle of matter.
The 'flow' of energy defines time.
The background of matter defines space.
The fabric of spacetime defined by General Relativity is determined by the presence of mass-energy in the background of matter.
The background of matter expands and contracts according to General Relativity.
Galaxies are proposed to be vortices of contraction in the background of matter.
The great voids in space are proposed to be centers of expansion in the universal background of matter.
The Universe is an immense ocean of matter with energy flowing through and causing organization.
The Background of Matter
The existence of the universal background of matter is an inescapable consequence of the unit particles of matter being permanent in nature.
The permanent nature of the unit particles of matter is an inescapable consequence of Standard Model particles substructures being formed from the positive and negative unit particles of matter which somehow manage to not self destruct.
In other words, there must be something that keeps the positive units of matter from annihilating with the negative units of matter within the particle unit of matter substructures. The doublet substructures indicate that the positive and negative unit particles of matter forming the doublet substructures do not annihilate in close proximity within the substructure.
The unit particle substructure of matter theory directly predicts the possible existence of a massless energyless doublet particles of pure matter because it concludes that the unit particles of matter are permanent in nature.
The doublet substructure was deduced to be massless, meaning that there is no mass-energy bound in the doublet particle substructure. The doublet substructures have no rest mass, but they may acquire momentum energy in the cases neutrinos and photons.
The possible existence of a massless doublet particle of pure matter had to be explored because of the unit particles of matter being permanent in nature. The result of the exploration was a realization of the great amount of evidence already manifesting the existence of the background of matter.
The background ocean of matter particles are particles of pure matter. The background ocean of matter particles have no momentum energy. The background ocean of matter particles have no energy at all.
The Permanent Nature of Matter
The new proposal that matter is permanent in nature, as is energy, is an inescapable consequence of Standard Model particles having a unit particle of matter substructures. The immediate consequence of all Standard Model particles having a unit particle of matter substructure is that the unit particles of matter forming the particle structures must be permanent in nature to allow for the particle structures to exist.
The deduction that all Standard Model particles have a substructure of unit particles of matter forces the immediate consequence that the unit particles of matter must be non-destructible within the particle structure, and therefore that the unit particles of matter must be of a permanent nature.
Physicists routinely observe matter and anti-matter annihilating into the 'pure' energy of photons and particles popping into existence after being converted from the energy of photons. Physicists have measured the energy in and out of creation and annihilation events to high accuracy and have shown conclusively that the energy conversion to matter, or vice versa, is complete. There is no mass-energy after a pair annihilation left with which to form residual matter because all of the energy is carried away by the resulting photons. Annihilation does not mean the matter was destroyed, it just means that combination of matter and energy that formed the particles was destroyed.
The Source of Matter
The source of all unit particles of matter is proposed to be the background of matter oceanic particles.
If matter is permanent in nature, then there has to be a source of unit particles of matter for newly created particles. The background ocean of matter was discovered because of the necessity finding a source for the unit particles of matter in newly created particles.
If units of energy and and units of matter within photons are in one to one correspondence, then there is no need for a source of unit particles of matter, but the background ocean is a necessary consequence of the unit particles of matter being permanent in nature.
It is well known that particles of matter can be created from the mass-energy of photons. It is also well known that particles with a rest mass and massless photons are interchangeable according to the famous equation E=mc2.
Presently, the distinction is not clearly made between mass-energy and matter in regards to the equation. The 'm' in the equation E=mc2 symbolizes relativistic mass, not matter.
It is mass-energy that is interchangeable in the equation, not matter. Matter is permanent in nature, same as energy is.
The equation represents the relativistic mass-energy of a particle given any rest mass and any velocity up to the velocity of light.
In particle matter creation events, such a jets sprays in accelerators or cosmic particle showers, the equation does not indicate that matter is created or destroyed. Since matter is permanent in nature, it is particle combinations of matter and energy that are created and destroyed.
The oceanic particles are composed of a bound state of two unit particles of matter, one positive unit and one negative unit, resulting in a overall neutral particle. All of the positive and negative unit particles of matter in particle substructures are proposed to have their origin as background oceanic particles.
1 The Unit Particles of Matter
2 The Inherent Helicity of Matter
The Unit Particles of Matter
The unit particles of matter have unit charge because they are the fundamental units of matter.
The source of the unit particles of matter are the doublet particles of the background ocean. The background oceanic particles are neutral energyless, massless particles composed of one positive and one negative unit particle of matter.
1 The Unit Particles of Energy
2 Unit Photons
3 External and Internal Energy
3 The Non-Locality of Energy
The Unit Particles of Energy
Unit particles of energy are one of two components of all known matter. Unit particles of matter are the other component of the two components of all known matter.
E=hv is the fundamental equation of quantum mechanical physics. The discovery of the relationship represented by the equation was made by Max Planck in 1900 while he was working on the problem of the "ultraviolet catastrophe" in thermal radiation. The discovery of the relationship launched the field of quantum mechanics. The equation unequivocally states that the energy of photons has a unit nature.
E=hv states the energy of a photon is proportional to the electromagnetic frequency of the photon.
The equation E=hv indicates that energy has a quantum or unit nature. In the equation, v represents one cycle or rotation of a pair of energy particles. Each pair of counter rotating energy particles contributes one 'frequency' of energy.
The two energy directions of energy rotation in a photon each contribute angular momentum 1/2, giving a total angular momentum of 1 with two degrees of freedom.
The unit energy particles are separate and distinct from photons. Unit energy particles are a component of photons. Both unit energy particles and the unit energy nature of photons are implicated in the equation E=hv.
Energy must at all times be hosted by unit particles of matter. Unit particles of matter host units of energy and energy must at all times be bound to a unit particle of matter.
Energy must bind to its host unit particle of matter with right hand rotation with regard to the north magnetic dipole for positive unit particles of matter and with left hand rotation with regard to the north magnetic dipole for negative unit particles of matter.
The units of energy express the charge of the unit particles of matter and cause mass. A unit particle of matter which hosts no energy exhibits no charge. Energy is required to exhibit charge of a unit of matter.
The number of unit energy particles involved in the internal structure of the particle determines its rest mass.
The unit energy quanta components in the internal structure of particle are the rest mass of that particle. The rest mass of a particle represents the internal structural energy of the particle.
A unit photon is defined as a photon composed of two energy units bound to a host doublet substructure particle of matter.
Photons are a composite structure composed of a doublet unit particle of matter substructure and a number of pairs of counter rotating energy particles.
Each energy pair of energy particles contributes one cycle to the frequency of a photon and can be thought of logically as a unit photon. Whether logical unit photons map to physicial unit photons is an open issue. This work chose to proceed with the idea that photons are formed from multiple pairs of energy units bound to a single doublet substructure versus a one to one relationship of a pair of energy units to a singlet doublet meaning that physical unit photons are the reality.
If there is a one to one relationship of a pair of energy units to a singlet doublet and physical unit photons are the real structure of photons, then there is no need for a source of matter for newly created matter and anti-matter in creation events because each energy unit is bound to unit particle of matter. In this case, the background of matter is still a necessary consequence of the permanent nature of unit particles of matter because of the necessary existence of massless doublets, but this case would negate the need for a source of unit particles of matter in newly created particles and the consequence of the background of matter.
One cycle or unit of time is one energy rotation.
Unit photons are not unit energy particles, rather they are unit photons. Unit photons represent two unit energy particles.
Internal and External Energy
Unit energy particles can further be bound as internal structural energy or as external momentum energy.
Internal mass-energy is an integral part of the structure of a particle. External energy is the momentum energy of a particle.
Rest-Mass Energy = Structural Energy = Internal Energy
Momentum Energy = Kinetic Energy = External Energy
Internal mass-energy being a part of the structure of the particle, the glue that
holds the unit particles of matter substructure in place, defines the rest mass of
the particle because the rest mass of a particle is its energy with no momentum.
A particle with zero rest mass such as a photon are particles that zero internal
The Non-Locality of Energy
Some have claimed that the knowledge of the background of matter means the end of physics is near. Far from it. The non-locality of energy as demonstrated by the two slit type experiments and the "faster than light barrier" experiments indicate that there is yet much to be learned about energy.
The units of energy are non-local within their wave packet with the wave packet described by the wave function. Therefore, the units of energy must carve out the wave packet in every rotation. The probability of finding the energy units in a given location per cycle of the wave function is found through the wave function.
The non-locality of the energy within the wave function means that the energy units must carve the entire wave packet every rotation. The probability of finding the energy units in a given location per rotation is given by the wave function.
Energy is the life-blood of the Universe. Energy flows... Energy is the action which causes the flow of time. The flow of energy is the flow of time. An organized flow of energy is the essence of life. Energy combines with the positive and negative units of matter supplied by oceanic particles to form the all of the organizations of matter and energy known, the known particles of matter. The known particles of matter make all of the structures in the Universe, including galaxies and stars, and planets and people.
Last Update: August 1, 1999
Created April 4, 1996